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2015


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Distributed Event-based State Estimation

Trimpe, S.

Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, November 2015 (techreport)

Abstract
An event-based state estimation approach for reducing communication in a networked control system is proposed. Multiple distributed sensor-actuator-agents observe a dynamic process and sporadically exchange their measurements and inputs over a bus network. Based on these data, each agent estimates the full state of the dynamic system, which may exhibit arbitrary inter-agent couplings. Local event-based protocols ensure that data is transmitted only when necessary to meet a desired estimation accuracy. This event-based scheme is shown to mimic a centralized Luenberger observer design up to guaranteed bounds, and stability is proven in the sense of bounded estimation errors for bounded disturbances. The stability result extends to the distributed control system that results when the local state estimates are used for distributed feedback control. Simulation results highlight the benefit of the event-based approach over classical periodic ones in reducing communication requirements.

am ics

arXiv [BibTex]

2015


arXiv [BibTex]


Automatic LQR Tuning Based on Gaussian Process Optimization: Early Experimental Results
Automatic LQR Tuning Based on Gaussian Process Optimization: Early Experimental Results

Marco, A., Hennig, P., Bohg, J., Schaal, S., Trimpe, S.

Machine Learning in Planning and Control of Robot Motion Workshop at the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (iROS), pages: , , Machine Learning in Planning and Control of Robot Motion Workshop, October 2015 (conference)

Abstract
This paper proposes an automatic controller tuning framework based on linear optimal control combined with Bayesian optimization. With this framework, an initial set of controller gains is automatically improved according to a pre-defined performance objective evaluated from experimental data. The underlying Bayesian optimization algorithm is Entropy Search, which represents the latent objective as a Gaussian process and constructs an explicit belief over the location of the objective minimum. This is used to maximize the information gain from each experimental evaluation. Thus, this framework shall yield improved controllers with fewer evaluations compared to alternative approaches. A seven-degree-of-freedom robot arm balancing an inverted pole is used as the experimental demonstrator. Preliminary results of a low-dimensional tuning problem highlight the method’s potential for automatic controller tuning on robotic platforms.

am ei ics pn

PDF DOI Project Page [BibTex]

PDF DOI Project Page [BibTex]


3D-printed Soft Microrobot for Swimming in Biological Fluids
3D-printed Soft Microrobot for Swimming in Biological Fluids

Qiu, T., Palagi, S., Fischer, P.

In Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., pages: 4922-4925, August 2015 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Microscopic artificial swimmers hold the potential to enable novel non-invasive medical procedures. In order to ease their translation towards real biomedical applications, simpler designs as well as cheaper yet more reliable materials and fabrication processes should be adopted, provided that the functionality of the microrobots can be kept. A simple single-hinge design could already enable microswimming in non-Newtonian fluids, which most bodily fluids are. Here, we address the fabrication of such single-hinge microrobots with a 3D-printed soft material. Firstly, a finite element model is developed to investigate the deformability of the 3D-printed microstructure under typical values of the actuating magnetic fields. Then the microstructures are fabricated by direct 3D-printing of a soft material and their swimming performances are evaluated. The speeds achieved with the 3D-printed microrobots are comparable to those obtained in previous work with complex fabrication procedures, thus showing great promise for 3D-printed microrobots to be operated in biological fluids.

pf

link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Direct Loss Minimization Inverse Optimal Control
Direct Loss Minimization Inverse Optimal Control

Doerr, A., Ratliff, N., Bohg, J., Toussaint, M., Schaal, S.

In Proceedings of Robotics: Science and Systems, Rome, Italy, Robotics: Science and Systems XI, July 2015 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Inverse Optimal Control (IOC) has strongly impacted the systems engineering process, enabling automated planner tuning through straightforward and intuitive demonstration. The most successful and established applications, though, have been in lower dimensional problems such as navigation planning where exact optimal planning or control is feasible. In higher dimensional systems, such as humanoid robots, research has made substantial progress toward generalizing the ideas to model free or locally optimal settings, but these systems are complicated to the point where demonstration itself can be difficult. Typically, real-world applications are restricted to at best noisy or even partial or incomplete demonstrations that prove cumbersome in existing frameworks. This work derives a very flexible method of IOC based on a form of Structured Prediction known as Direct Loss Minimization. The resulting algorithm is essentially Policy Search on a reward function that rewards similarity to demonstrated behavior (using Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) in our experiments). Our framework blurs the distinction between IOC, other forms of Imitation Learning, and Reinforcement Learning, enabling us to derive simple, versatile, and practical algorithms that blend imitation and reinforcement signals into a unified framework. Our experiments analyze various aspects of its performance and demonstrate its efficacy on conveying preferences for motion shaping and combined reach and grasp quality optimization.

am ics

PDF Video Project Page [BibTex]

PDF Video Project Page [BibTex]


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LMI-Based Synthesis for Distributed Event-Based State Estimation

Muehlebach, M., Trimpe, S.

In Proceedings of the American Control Conference, July 2015 (inproceedings)

Abstract
This paper presents an LMI-based synthesis procedure for distributed event-based state estimation. Multiple agents observe and control a dynamic process by sporadically exchanging data over a broadcast network according to an event-based protocol. In previous work [1], the synthesis of event-based state estimators is based on a centralized design. In that case three different types of communication are required: event-based communication of measurements, periodic reset of all estimates to their joint average, and communication of inputs. The proposed synthesis problem eliminates the communication of inputs as well as the periodic resets (under favorable circumstances) by accounting explicitly for the distributed structure of the control system.

am ics

PDF DOI Project Page [BibTex]

PDF DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Guaranteed H2 Performance in Distributed Event-Based State Estimation

Muehlebach, M., Trimpe, S.

In Proceeding of the First International Conference on Event-based Control, Communication, and Signal Processing, June 2015 (inproceedings)

am ics

PDF DOI Project Page [BibTex]

PDF DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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On the Choice of the Event Trigger in Event-based Estimation

Trimpe, S., Campi, M.

In Proceeding of the First International Conference on Event-based Control, Communication, and Signal Processing, June 2015 (inproceedings)

am ics

PDF DOI Project Page [BibTex]

PDF DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Event-based Estimation and Control for Remote Robot Operation with Reduced Communication

Trimpe, S., Buchli, J.

In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, May 2015 (inproceedings)

Abstract
An event-based communication framework for remote operation of a robot via a bandwidth-limited network is proposed. The robot sends state and environment estimation data to the operator, and the operator transmits updated control commands or policies to the robot. Event-based communication protocols are designed to ensure that data is transmitted only when required: the robot sends new estimation data only if this yields a significant information gain at the operator, and the operator transmits an updated control policy only if this comes with a significant improvement in control performance. The developed framework is modular and can be used with any standard estimation and control algorithms. Simulation results of a robotic arm highlight its potential for an efficient use of limited communication resources, for example, in disaster response scenarios such as the DARPA Robotics Challenge.

am ics

PDF DOI Project Page [BibTex]

PDF DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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A New Perspective and Extension of the Gaussian Filter

Wüthrich, M., Trimpe, S., Kappler, D., Schaal, S.

In Robotics: Science and Systems, 2015 (inproceedings)

Abstract
The Gaussian Filter (GF) is one of the most widely used filtering algorithms; instances are the Extended Kalman Filter, the Unscented Kalman Filter and the Divided Difference Filter. GFs represent the belief of the current state by a Gaussian with the mean being an affine function of the measurement. We show that this representation can be too restrictive to accurately capture the dependencies in systems with nonlinear observation models, and we investigate how the GF can be generalized to alleviate this problem. To this end we view the GF from a variational-inference perspective, and analyze how restrictions on the form of the belief can be relaxed while maintaining simplicity and efficiency. This analysis provides a basis for generalizations of the GF. We propose one such generalization which coincides with a GF using a virtual measurement, obtained by applying a nonlinear function to the actual measurement. Numerical experiments show that the proposed Feature Gaussian Filter (FGF) can have a substantial performance advantage over the standard GF for systems with nonlinear observation models.

am ics

Web PDF Project Page [BibTex]


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Combined FORC and x-ray microscopy study of magnetisation reversal in antidot lattices

Gräfe, J., Haering, F., Stahl, C., Weigand, M., Skripnik, M., Nowak, U., Ziemann, P., Wiedwald, U., Schütz, G., Goering, E.

In IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 2015), IEEE, Beijing, China, 2015 (inproceedings)

mms

DOI Project Page Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page Project Page [BibTex]


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Local control of domain wall dynamics in ferromagnetic rings

Richter, K., Mawass, M., Krone, A., Krüger, B., Weigand, M., Stoll, H., Schütz, G., Kläui, M.

In IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 2015), IEEE, Beijing, China, 2015 (inproceedings)

mms

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Ultrafast demagnetization after laser pulse irradiation in Ni: Ab-initio electron-phonon scattering and phase space calculations

Illg, C., Haag, M., Fähnle, M.

In Ultrafast Magnetism I. Proceedings of the International Conference UMC 2013, 159, pages: 131-133, Springer Proceedings in Physics, Springer, Strasbourg, 2015 (inproceedings)

mms

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Automotive domain wall propagation in ferromagnetic rings

Richter, K., Mawass, M., Krone, A., Krüger, B., Weigand, M., Schütz, G., Stoll, H., Kläui, M.

In IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 2015), IEEE, Beijing, China, 2015 (inproceedings)

mms

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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The third dimension: Vortex core reversal by interaction with \textquotesingleflexure modes’

Noske, M., Stoll, H., Fähnle, M., Weigand, M., Dieterle, G., Förster, J., Gangwar, A., Slavin, A., Back, C. H., Schütz, G.

In IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 2015), IEEE, Beijing, China, 2015 (inproceedings)

mms

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Skyrmions at room temperature in magnetic multilayers

Moreau-Luchaire, C., Reyren, N., Moutafis, C., Sampaio, J., Van Horne, N., Vaz, C. A., Warnicke, P., Garcia, K., Weigand, M., Bouzehouane, K., Deranlot, C., George, J., Raabe, J., Cros, V., Fert, A.

In IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 2015), IEEE, Beijing, China, 2015 (inproceedings)

mms

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]

2014


3D nanofabrication on complex seed shapes using glancing angle deposition
3D nanofabrication on complex seed shapes using glancing angle deposition

Hyeon-Ho, J., Mark, A. G., Gibbs, J. G., Reindl, T., Waizmann, U., Weis, J., Fischer, P.

In 2014 IEEE 27th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), pages: 437-440, January 2014 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) fabrication techniques promise new device architectures and enable the integration of more components, but fabricating 3D nanostructures for device applications remains challenging. Recently, we have performed glancing angle deposition (GLAD) upon a nanoscale hexagonal seed array to create a variety of 3D nanoscale objects including multicomponent rods, helices, and zigzags [1]. Here, in an effort to generalize our technique, we present a step-by-step approach to grow 3D nanostructures on more complex nanoseed shapes and configurations than before. This approach allows us to create 3D nanostructures on nanoseeds regardless of seed sizes and shapes.

pf

DOI [BibTex]

2014


DOI [BibTex]


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A Self-Tuning LQR Approach Demonstrated on an Inverted Pendulum

Trimpe, S., Millane, A., Doessegger, S., D’Andrea, R.

In Proceedings of the 19th IFAC World Congress, Cape Town, South Africa, 2014 (inproceedings)

am ics

PDF Supplementary material DOI [BibTex]

PDF Supplementary material DOI [BibTex]


Active Microrheology of the Vitreous of the Eye applied to Nanorobot Propulsion
Active Microrheology of the Vitreous of the Eye applied to Nanorobot Propulsion

Qiu, T., Schamel, D., Mark, A. G., Fischer, P.

In 2014 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION (ICRA), pages: 3801-3806, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation ICRA, 2014, Best Automation Paper Award – Finalist. (inproceedings)

Abstract
Biomedical applications of micro or nanorobots require active movement through complex biological fluids. These are generally non-Newtonian (viscoelastic) fluids that are characterized by complicated networks of macromolecules that have size-dependent rheological properties. It has been suggested that an untethered microrobot could assist in retinal surgical procedures. To do this it must navigate the vitreous humor, a hydrated double network of collagen fibrils and high molecular-weight, polyanionic hyaluronan macromolecules. Here, we examine the characteristic size that potential robots must have to traverse vitreous relatively unhindered. We have constructed magnetic tweezers that provide a large gradient of up to 320 T/m to pull sub-micron paramagnetic beads through biological fluids. A novel two-step electrical discharge machining (EDM) approach is used to construct the tips of the magnetic tweezers with a resolution of 30 mu m and high aspect ratio of similar to 17:1 that restricts the magnetic field gradient to the plane of observation. We report measurements on porcine vitreous. In agreement with structural data and passive Brownian diffusion studies we find that the unhindered active propulsion through the eye calls for nanorobots with cross-sections of less than 500 nm.

Best Automation Paper Award – Finalist.

pf

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Stability Analysis of Distributed Event-Based State Estimation

Trimpe, S.

In Proceedings of the 53rd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Los Angeles, CA, 2014 (inproceedings)

Abstract
An approach for distributed and event-based state estimation that was proposed in previous work [1] is analyzed and extended to practical networked systems in this paper. Multiple sensor-actuator-agents observe a dynamic process, sporadically exchange their measurements over a broadcast network according to an event-based protocol, and estimate the process state from the received data. The event-based approach was shown in [1] to mimic a centralized Luenberger observer up to guaranteed bounds, under the assumption of identical estimates on all agents. This assumption, however, is unrealistic (it is violated by a single packet drop or slight numerical inaccuracy) and removed herein. By means of a simulation example, it is shown that non-identical estimates can actually destabilize the overall system. To achieve stability, the event-based communication scheme is supplemented by periodic (but infrequent) exchange of the agentsâ?? estimates and reset to their joint average. When the local estimates are used for feedback control, the stability guarantee for the estimation problem extends to the event-based control system.

am ics

PDF Supplementary material DOI Project Page [BibTex]

PDF Supplementary material DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Increasing the sensor performance using Au modified high temperature superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films

Katzer, C., Stahl, C., Michalowski, P., Treiber, S., Westernhausen, M., Schmidl, F., Seidel, P., Schütz, G., Albrecht, J.

In 507, IOP Pub., Genova, Italy, 2014 (inproceedings)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]

2012


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Event-based State Estimation with Switching Static-gain Observers

Trimpe, S.

In Proceedings of the 3rd IFAC Workshop on Distributed Estimation and Control in Networked Systems, 2012 (inproceedings)

am ics

PDF DOI [BibTex]

2012


PDF DOI [BibTex]


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Event-based State Estimation with Variance-Based Triggering

Trimpe, S., D’Andrea, R.

In Proceedings of the 51st IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 2012 (inproceedings)

am ics

PDF Supplementary material DOI [BibTex]

PDF Supplementary material DOI [BibTex]


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Spin wave mediated magnetic vortex core reversal

Stoll, H.

In 8461, San Diego, California, USA, 2012 (inproceedings)

mms

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]

2008


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Wetting and premelting of triple junctions and grain boundaries in the Al-Zn alloys

Straumal, B., Kogtenkova, O., Protasova, S., Mazilkin, A., Zieba, P., Czeppe, T., Wojewoda-Budka, J., Faryna, M.

In 495, pages: 126-131, Alicante, Spain, 2008 (inproceedings)

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DOI [BibTex]

2008


DOI [BibTex]


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Study of the intermixing of Fe\textendashPt multilayers by analytical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

Sigle, W., Kaiser, T., Goll, D., Goo, N. H., Srot, V., van Aken, P. A., Detemple, E., Jäger, W.

In EMC2008, 14th European Microscopy Congress, Vol. 2: Materials Science, pages: 109-110, Springer, Aachen, Germany, 2008 (inproceedings)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]

2001


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Computational micromagnetism of magnetic structures and magnetization processes in thin plantelets and small particles

Kronmüller, H., Hertel, R.

In Magnetic Storage Sstems Beyond 2000, 41, pages: 345-362, Nato Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Rhodos, Greece, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

2001


[BibTex]


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Hydrogen storage in mechanically treated single wall carbon nanotrubes

Haluska, M., Hulman, M., Hirscher, M., Becher, M., Roth, S., Stepanek, I., Bernier, P.

In Electronic Properties of Molecular Nanostructures: XV International Winterschool/Euroconference, 591, pages: 603-608, American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, AIP, Kirchberg [Austria], 2001 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Isotopic mass and lattice constant of Si and Ge: X-Ray standing wave measurements

Zegenhagen, J., Kazimirov, A., Cao, L. X., Konuma, M., Sozontov, E., Plachke, D., Carstanjen, H. D., Bilger, G., Haller, E., Kohn, V., Cardona, M.

In Proceedings of the 25th Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, 87, pages: 125-127, Springer proceedings in physics, Springer, Osaka, Japan, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Positron Annihilation Studies on Stable and Undercooled Metal Melts at the Stuttgart Pelletron

Stoll, H., Siegle, A., Major, J.

In Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, 576, pages: 749-752, AIP Conference Proceedings, Denton, Texas, USA, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Submicrometer spatially resolved measurements of mechanical properties and correlation to microstructure and composition

Kunert, M., Baretzky, B., Baker, S. P., Mittemeijer, E. J.

In Fundamentals of Nanoindentation and Nanotribology II, 649, pages: Q3.2.1-Q3.2.6, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, MRS, Boston, MA, USA, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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The six-jump diffusion cycles in B2-compounds

Drautz, R., Meyer, B., Fähnle, M.

In Proceedings of DIMAT 2000, the Fifth International Conference on Diffusion in Materials, pages: 417-422, Defect and Diffusion Forum, Scitec Publications Ltd., Paris, France, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Ionic nitriding of austenitic and ferritic steel with the aid of a high aperture hall current accelerator

Straumal, B. B., Vershinin, N. F., Friesel, M., Ishenko, S. A., Gust, W.

In Diffusion in Materials DIMAT2000, 194, pages: 1457-1462, Defect and Diffusion Forum, Trans Tech, Paris, France, 2001 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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First proof of slow trapping of positronium in polymers by an Age-Momentum-Correlation (AMOC) experiment

Dauwe, C., Balcaen, N., van Waeyenberge, B., van Petegem, S., Stoll, H.

In Positron Annihilation. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Positron Annihilation, 363/365, pages: 254-256, Materials Science Forum, Trans Tech Publications Ltd., München, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Positron-age-momentum correlation

Stoll, H., Bandzuch, P., Siegle, A.

In Positron Annihilation: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Positron Annihilation, 363-365, pages: 547-551, Materials Science Forum, Trans Tech Publications Ltd., München, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Nanocrystalline and nanostructured high-performance permanent magnets

Goll, D., Hadjipanayis, G. C., Kronmüller, H.

In Applications of Ferromagnetic and Optical Materials, Storage and Magnetoelectronics, 674, pages: U2.4.1-U2.4.12, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, MRS, San Francisco, Calif., 2001 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Ion beam analysis with monolayer depth resolution using the electrostatic spectrometer at the MPI Stuttgart

Plachke, D., Blohm, G., Fischer, T., Khellaf, A., Kruse, O., Stoll, H., Carstanjen, H. D.

In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Applications of Accelerators in Research and Industry, 576, pages: 458-462, American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, AIP, Denton, Texas, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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From the electronic structure to the macroscopiy behavior: A multi-scale analysis of plasticity in intermetallic compounds

Fähnle, M., Kohlhammer, S., Bester, G.

In Influences of Interface and Dislocation Behavior on Microstructure Evolution, 652, pages: Y4.5.1.-Y4.5.12, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, MRS, Boston, Mass., USA, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Influence of the microstructure on the magnetic properties of giant-magnetostrictive TbDyFe films

Hirscher, M., Winzek, B., Fischer, S. F., Kronmüller, H.

In Smart Materials. Proceedings of the 1st Caesarium, pages: 23-37, Springer, Bonn, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Materials analysis with monolayer depth resolution using MeV ion beams

Carstanjen, H. D.

In 117, Las Vegas, USA, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Flux-line pinning in low-angle grain boundaries.

Albrecht, J., Leonhardt, S., Kronmüller, H.

In Proceedings 10th International Workshop on Critical Currents (IWCC 2001), pages: 41-43, Göttingen, Germany, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Measurement of the low-temperature self-diffusivity of lithium by elastic recoil detection analysis

Wieland, O., Carstanjen, H. D.

In Proceedings of DIMAT 2000, the Fifth International Conference on Diffusion in Materials, 194/199, pages: 35-41, Defect and Diffusion Forum, Scitec Publications Ltd., Paris, France, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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From the electronic structure to the macroscopic behaviour: a multi-scale analysis of plasticity in intermetallic compounds

Fähnle, M., Kohlhammer, S., Bester, G.

In Influences of Interface and Dislocation Behavior on Microstructure Evolution, 652, pages: Y.4.5.1-Y.4.5.12, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, MRS, Boston, Mass., 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Enhancement of the critical current density of YBa2Cu3O7-8-films by substracte irradiation

Leonhardt, S., Albrecht, J., Warthmann, R., Kronmüller, H.

In High-Tc Superconductors and Related Applications: Materials Science, Fundamental Properties, and Some Future Electronic Applications. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, 86, pages: 529-534, NATO Science Series 3. High Technology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Albena, Bulgaria, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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AMOC studies of positronium in fine MgO powder

van Waeyenberge, B., Dauwe, C., Stoll, H.

In Positron Annihilation. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Positron Annihilation, 363/365, pages: 401-403, Materials Science Forum, Trans Tech Publications Ltd., München, 2001 (inproceedings)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Atomic defects and electronic structure of B2-FeAl, CoAl and NiAl

Fähnle, M., Meyer, B., Bester, G., Majer, J., Börnsen, N.

In Proceedings of DIMAT 2000, the Fifth International Conference on Diffusion in Materials, 194/199, pages: 279-285, Defect and Diffusion Forum, Scitec Publications Ltd., Paris, France, 2001 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]