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2020


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Fabrication and temperature-dependent magnetic properties of large-area L10-FePt/Co exchange-spring magnet nanopatterns

Son, K., Schütz, G.

{Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems And Nanostructures}, 115, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

2020


DOI [BibTex]


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X-ray Optics Fabrication Using Unorthodox Approaches

Sanli, U., Baluktsian, M., Ceylan, H., Sitti, M., Weigand, M., Schütz, G., Keskinbora, K.

Bulletin of the American Physical Society, APS, 2019 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Nanoscale detection of spin wave deflection angles in permalloy

Gross, F., Träger, N., Förster, J., Weigand, M., Schütz, G., Gräfe, J.

{Applied Physics Letters}, 114(1), American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Generation of switchable singular beams with dynamic metasurfaces

Yu, P., Li, J., Li, X., Schütz, G., Hirscher, M., Zhang, S., Liu, N.

{ACS Nano}, 13(6):7100-7106, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Extracting the dynamic magnetic contrast in time-resolved X-ray transmission microscopy

Schaffers, T., Feggeler, T., Pile, S., Meckenstock, R., Buchner, M., Spoddig, D., Ney, V., Farle, M., Wende, H., Wintz, S., Weigand, M., Ohldag, H., Ollefs, K, Ney, A.

{Nanomaterials}, 9(7), MDPI, Basel, Schweiz, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Microrobotics and Microorganisms: Biohybrid Autonomous Cellular Robots

Alapan, Y., Yasa, O., Yigit, B., Yasa, I. C., Erkoc, P., Sitti, M.

Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems, 2019 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Tailored Magnetic Springs for Shape-Memory Alloy Actuated Mechanisms in Miniature Robots

Woodward, M. A., Sitti, M.

IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 35, 2019 (article)

Abstract
Animals can incorporate large numbers of actuators because of the characteristics of muscles; whereas, robots cannot, as typical motors tend to be large, heavy, and inefficient. However, shape-memory alloys (SMA), materials that contract during heating because of change in their crystal structure, provide another option. SMA, though, is unidirectional and therefore requires an additional force to reset (extend) the actuator, which is typically provided by springs or antagonistic actuation. These strategies, however, tend to limit the actuator's work output and functionality as their force-displacement relationships typically produce increasing resistive force with limited variability. In contrast, magnetic springs-composed of permanent magnets, where the interaction force between magnets mimics a spring force-have much more variable force-displacement relationships and scale well with SMA. However, as of yet, no method for designing magnetic springs for SMA-actuators has been demonstrated. Therefore, in this paper, we present a new methodology to tailor magnetic springs to the characteristics of these actuators, with experimental results both for the device and robot-integrated SMA-actuators. We found magnetic building blocks, based on sets of permanent magnets, which are well-suited to SMAs and have the potential to incorporate features such as holding force, state transitioning, friction minimization, auto-alignment, and self-mounting. We show magnetic springs that vary by more than 3 N in 750 $\mu$m and two SMA-actuated devices that allow the MultiMo-Bat to reach heights of up to 4.5 m without, and 3.6 m with, integrated gliding airfoils. Our results demonstrate the potential of this methodology to add previously impossible functionality to smart material actuators. We anticipate this methodology will inspire broader consideration of the use of magnetic springs in miniature robots and further study of the potential of tailored magnetic springs throughout mechanical systems.

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DOI [BibTex]


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Coherent excitation of heterosymmetric spin waves with ultrashort wavelengths

Dieterle, G., Förster, J., Stoll, H., Semisalova, A. S., Finizio, S., Gangwar, A., Weigand, M., Noske, M., Fähnle, M., Bykova, I., Gräfe, J., Bozhko, D. A., Musiienko-Shmarova, H. Y., Tiberkevich, V., Slavin, A. N., Back, C. H., Raabe, J., Schütz, G., Wintz, S.

{Physical Review Letters}, 122(11), American Physical Society, Woodbury, N.Y., 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Reprogrammability and Scalability of Magnonic Fibonacci Quasicrystals

Lisiecki, F., Rychły, J., Kuświk, P., Głowiński, H., Kłos, J. W., Groß, F., Bykova, I., Weigand, M., Zelent, M., Goering, E. J., Schütz, G., Gubbiotti, G., Krawczyk, M., Stobiecki, F., Dubowik, J., Gräfe, J.

Physical Review Applied, 11, pages: 054003, 2019 (article)

Abstract
Magnonic crystals are systems that can be used to design and tune the dynamic properties of magnetization. Here, we focus on one-dimensional Fibonacci magnonic quasicrystals. We confirm the existence of collective spin waves propagating through the structure as well as dispersionless modes; the reprogammability of the resonance frequencies, dependent on the magnetization order; and dynamic spin-wave interactions. With the fundamental understanding of these properties, we lay a foundation for the scalable and advanced design of spin-wave band structures for spintronic, microwave, and magnonic applications.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Coordinated molecule-modulated magnetic phase with metamagnetism in metal-organic frameworks

Son, K., Kim, J. Y., Schütz, G., Kang, S. G., Moon, H. R., Oh, H.

{Inorganic Chemistry}, 58(14):8895-8899, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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The near and far of a pair of magnetic capillary disks

Koens, L., Wang, W., Sitti, M., Lauga, E.

Soft Matter, 2019 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Multifarious Transit Gates for Programmable Delivery of Bio‐functionalized Matters

Hu, X., Torati, S. R., Kim, H., Yoon, J., Lim, B., Kim, K., Sitti, M., Kim, C.

Small, Wiley Online Library, 2019 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Magnons in a Quasicrystal: Propagation, Extinction, and Localization of Spin Waves in Fibonacci Structures

Lisiecki, F., Rychły, J., Kuświk, P., Głowiński, H., Kłos, J. W., Groß, F., Träger, N., Bykova, I., Weigand, M., Zelent, M., Goering, E. J., Schütz, G., Krawczyk, M., Stobiecki, F., Dubowik, J., Gräfe, J.

Physical Review Applied, 11, pages: 054061, 2019 (article)

Abstract
Magnonic quasicrystals exceed the possibilities of spin-wave (SW) manipulation offered by regular magnonic crystals, because of their more complex SW spectra with fractal characteristics. Here, we report the direct x-ray microscopic observation of propagating SWs in a magnonic quasicrystal, consisting of dipolar coupled permalloy nanowires arranged in a one-dimensional Fibonacci sequence. SWs from the first and second band as well as evanescent waves from the band gap between them are imaged. Moreover, additional mini band gaps in the spectrum are demonstrated, directly indicating an influence of the quasiperiodicity of the system. Finally, the localization of SW modes within the Fibonacci crystal is shown. The experimental results are interpreted using numerical calculations and we deduce a simple model to estimate the frequency position of the magnonic gaps in quasiperiodic structures. The demonstrated features of SW spectra in one-dimensional magnonic quasicrystals allow utilizing this class of metamaterials for magnonics and make them an ideal basis for future applications.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Structural and magnetic properties of FePt-Tb alloy thin films

Schmidt, N. Y., Laureti, S., Radu, F., Ryll, H., Luo, C., d\textquotesingleAcapito, F., Tripathi, S., Goering, E., Weller, D., Albrecht, M.

{Physical Review B}, 100(6), American Physical Society, Woodbury, NY, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Mechanics of a pressure-controlled adhesive membrane for soft robotic gripping on curved surfaces

Song, S., Drotlef, D., Paik, J., Majidi, C., Sitti, M.

Extreme Mechanics Letters, Elsevier, 2019 (article)

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[BibTex]


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Graphene oxide synergistically enhances antibiotic efficacy in Vancomycin resistance Staphylococcus aureus

Singh, V., Kumar, V., Kashyap, S., Singh, A. V., Kishore, V., Sitti, M., Saxena, P. S., Srivastava, A.

ACS Applied Bio Materials, ACS Publications, 2019 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Review of emerging concepts in nanotoxicology: opportunities and challenges for safer nanomaterial design

Singh, A. V., Laux, P., Luch, A., Sudrik, C., Wiehr, S., Wild, A., Santamauro, G., Bill, J., Sitti, M.

Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, 2019 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Interpreting first-order reversal curves beyond the Preisach model: An experimental permalloy microarray investigation

Groß, F., Ilse, S. E., Schütz, G., Gräfe, J., Goering, E.

{Physical Review B}, 99(6), American Physical Society, Woodbury, NY, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Bistability of magnetic states in Fe-Pd nanocap arrays

Aravind, P. B., Heigl, M., Fix, M., Groß, F., Gräfe, J., Mary, A., Rajgowrav, C. R., Krupiński, M., Marszałek, M., Thomas, S., Anantharaman, M. R., Albrecht, M.

Nanotechnology, 30, pages: 405705, 2019 (article)

Abstract
Magnetic bistability between vortex and single domain states in nanostructures are of great interest from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In soft magnetic nanostructures, the transition from a uniform collinear magnetic state to a vortex state (or vice versa) induced by a magnetic field involves an energy barrier. If the thermal energy is large enough for overcoming this energy barrier, magnetic bistability with a hysteresis-free switching occurs between the two magnetic states. In this work, we tune this energy barrier by tailoring the composition of FePd alloys, which were deposited onto self-assembled particle arrays forming magnetic vortex structures on top of the particles. The bifurcation temperature, where a hysteresis-free transition occurs, was extracted from the temperature dependence of the annihilation and nucleation field which increases almost linearly with Fe content of the magnetic alloy. This study provides insights into the magnetization reversal process associated with magnetic bistability, which allows adjusting the bifurcation temperature range by the material properties of the nanosystem.

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link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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An international laboratory comparison study of volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen adsorption measurements

Hurst, K. E., Gennett, T., Adams, J., Allendorf, M. D., Balderas-Xicohténcatl, R., Bielewski, M., Edwards, B., Espinal, L., Fultz, B., Hirscher, M., Hudson, M. S. L., Hulvey, Z., Latroche, M., Liu, D., Kapelewski, M., Napolitano, E., Perry, Z. T., Purewal, J., Stavila, V., Veenstra, M., White, J. L., Yuan, Y., Zhou, H., Zlotea, C., Parilla, P.

{ChemPhysChem}, 20(15):1997-2009, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Superior magnetic performance in FePt L10 nanomaterials

Son, K., Ryu, G. H., Jeong, H., Fink, L., Merz, M., Nagel, P., Schuppler, S., Richter, G., Goering, E., Schütz, G.

{Small}, 15(34), Wiley, Weinheim, Germany, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Mobile microrobots for active therapeutic delivery

Erkoc, P., Yasa, I. C., Ceylan, H., Yasa, O., Alapan, Y., Sitti, M.

Advanced Therapeutics, Wiley Online Library, 2019 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Microfluidics Integrated Lithography‐Free Nanophotonic Biosensor for the Detection of Small Molecules

Sreekanth, K. V., Sreejith, S., Alapan, Y., Sitti, M., Lim, C. T., Singh, R.

Advanced Optical Materials, 2019 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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ENGINEERING Bio-inspired robotic collectives

Sitti, M.

Nature, 567, pages: 314-315, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., London, England, 2019 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Electromechanical actuation of dielectric liquid crystal elastomers for soft robotics

Davidson, Z., Shahsavan, H., Guo, Y., Hines, L., Xia, Y., Yang, S., Sitti, M.

Bulletin of the American Physical Society, APS, 2019 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Systematic experimental study on quantum sieving of hydrogen isotopes in metal-amide-imidazolate frameworks with narrow 1-D channels

Mondal, S. S., Kreuzer, A., Behrens, K., Schütz, G., Holdt, H., Hirscher, M.

{ChemPhysChem}, 20(10):1311-1315, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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The route to supercurrent transparent ferromagnetic barriers in superconducting matrix

Ivanov, Y. P., Soltan, S., Albrecht, J., Goering, E., Schütz, G., Zhang, Z., Chuvilin, A.

{ACS Nano}, 13(5):5655-5661, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Artifacts from manganese reduction in rock samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) slicing for X-ray microspectroscopy

Macholdt, D. S., Förster, J., Müller, M., Weber, B., Kappl, M., Kilcoyne, A. L. D., Weigand, M., Leitner, J., Jochum, K. P., Pöhlker, C., Andreae, M. O.

{Geoscientific instrumentation, methods and data systems}, 8(1):97-111, Copernicus Publ., Göttingen, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Mixed-state magnetotransport properties of MgB2 thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition on an Al2O3 substrate

Alzayed, N. S., Shahabuddin, M., Ramey, S. M., Soltan, S.

{Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics}, 30(2):1547-1552, Springer, Norwell, MA, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Comparison of theories of fast and ultrafast magnetization dynamics

Fähnle, M.

{Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials}, 469, pages: 28-29, NH, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Concepts for improving hydrogen storage in nanoporous materials

Broom, D. P., Webb, C. J., Fanourgakis, G. S., Froudakis, G. E., Trikalitis, P. N., Hirscher, M.

{International Journal of Hydrogen Energy}, 44(15):7768-7779, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Controlling dislocation nucleation-mediatd plasticity in nanostructures via surface modification

Shin, J., Chen, L. Y., Sanli, U. T., Richter, G., Labat, S., Richard, M., Cornelius, T., Thomas, O., Gianola, D. S.

{Acta Materialia}, 166, pages: 572-586, Elsevier Science, Kidlington, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Reprogrammability and scalability of magnonic Fibonacci quasicrystals

Lisiecki, F., Rychly, J., Kuswik, P., Glowinski, H., Klos, J. W., Groß, F., Bykova, I., Weigand, M., Zelent, M., Goering, E. J., Schütz, G., Gubbiotti, G., Krawczyk, M., Stobiecki, F., Dubowik, J., Gräfe, J.

{Physical Review Applied}, 11(5), American Physical Society, College Park, Md. [u.a.], 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]

2018


Thumb xl screenshot 2018 5 9 swimming back and forth using planar flagellar propulsion at low reynolds numbers   khalil   2018   adv ...
Swimming Back and Forth Using Planar Flagellar Propulsion at Low Reynolds Numbers

Khalil, I. S. M., Tabak, A. F., Hamed, Y., Mitwally, M. E., Tawakol, M., Klingner, A., Sitti, M.

Advanced Science, 5(2):1700461, 2018 (article)

Abstract
Abstract Peritrichously flagellated Escherichia coli swim back and forth by wrapping their flagella together in a helical bundle. However, other monotrichous bacteria cannot swim back and forth with a single flagellum and planar wave propagation. Quantifying this observation, a magnetically driven soft two‐tailed microrobot capable of reversing its swimming direction without making a U‐turn trajectory or actively modifying the direction of wave propagation is designed and developed. The microrobot contains magnetic microparticles within the polymer matrix of its head and consists of two collinear, unequal, and opposite ultrathin tails. It is driven and steered using a uniform magnetic field along the direction of motion with a sinusoidally varying orthogonal component. Distinct reversal frequencies that enable selective and independent excitation of the first or the second tail of the microrobot based on their tail length ratio are found. While the first tail provides a propulsive force below one of the reversal frequencies, the second is almost passive, and the net propulsive force achieves flagellated motion along one direction. On the other hand, the second tail achieves flagellated propulsion along the opposite direction above the reversal frequency.

pi

link (url) DOI [BibTex]

2018


link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Universal Custom Complex Magnetic Spring Design Methodology

Woodward, M. A., Sitti, M.

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 54(1):1-13, October 2018 (article)

Abstract
A design methodology is presented for creating custom complex magnetic springs through the design of force-displacement curves. This methodology results in a magnet configuration, which will produce a desired force-displacement relationship. Initially, the problem is formulated and solved as a system of linear equations. Then, given the limited likelihood of a single solution being feasibly manufactured, key parameters of the solution are extracted and varied to create a family of solutions. Finally, these solutions are refined using numerical optimization. Given the properties of magnets, this methodology can create any well-defined function of force versus displacement and is model-independent. To demonstrate this flexibility, a number of example magnetic springs are designed; one of which, designed for use in a jumping-gliding robot's shape memory alloy actuated clutch, is manufactured and experimentally characterized. Due to the scaling of magnetic forces, the displacement region which these magnetic springs are most applicable is that of millimeters and below. However, this region is well situated for miniature robots and smart material actuators, where a tailored magnetic spring, designed to compliment a component, can enhance its performance while adding new functionality. The methodology is also expendable to variable interactions and multi-dimensional magnetic field design.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Programmable collective behavior in dynamically self-assembled mobile microrobotic swarms

B Yigit, , Y Alapan, , Sitti, M.

Advanced Science, July 2018 (article)

Abstract
Collective control of mobile microrobotic swarms is indispensable for their potential high-impact applications in targeted drug delivery, medical diagnostics, parallel micromanipulation, and environmental sensing and remediation. Lack of on-board computational and sensing capabilities in current microrobotic systems necessitates use of physical interactions among individual microrobots for local physical communication and cooperation. Here, we show that mobile microrobotic swarms with well-defined collective behavior can be designed by engineering magnetic interactions among individual units. Microrobots, consisting of a linear chain of self-assembled magnetic microparticles, locomote on surfaces in response to a precessing magnetic field. Control over the direction of precessing magnetic field allows engineering attractive and repulsive interactions among microrobots and, thus, collective order with well-defined spatial organization and parallel operation over macroscale distances (~ 1 cm). These microrobotic swarms can be guided through confined spaces, while preserving microrobot morphology and function. These swarms can further achieve directional transport of large cargoes on surfaces and small cargoes in bulk fluids. Described design approach, exploiting physical interactions among individual robots, enables facile and rapid formation of self-organized and reconfigurable microrobotic swarms with programmable collective order.

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link (url) [BibTex]


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3D-Printed Biodegradable Microswimmer for Drug Delivery and Targeted Cell Labeling

Hakan Ceylan, , I. Ceren Yasa, , Oncay Yasa, , Ahmet Fatih Tabak, , Joshua Giltinan, , Sitti, M.

bioRxiv, pages: 379024, July 2018 (article)

Abstract
Miniaturization of interventional medical devices can leverage minimally invasive technologies by enabling operational resolution at cellular length scales with high precision and repeatability. Untethered micron-scale mobile robots can realize this by navigating and performing in hard-to-reach, confined and delicate inner body sites. However, such a complex task requires an integrated design and engineering strategy, where powering, control, environmental sensing, medical functionality and biodegradability need to be considered altogether. The present study reports a hydrogel-based, biodegradable microrobotic swimmer, which is responsive to the changes in its microenvironment for theranostic cargo delivery and release tasks. We design a double-helical magnetic microswimmer of 20 micrometers length, which is 3D-printed with complex geometrical and compositional features. At normal physiological concentrations, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) enzyme can entirely degrade the microswimmer body in 118 h to solubilized non-toxic products. The microswimmer can respond to the pathological concentrations of MMP-2 by swelling and thereby accelerating the release kinetics of the drug payload. Anti-ErbB 2 antibody-tagged magnetic nanoparticles released from the degraded microswimmers serve for targeted labeling of SKBR3 breast cancer cells to realize the potential of medical imaging of local tissue sites following the therapeutic intervention. These results represent a leap forward toward clinical medical microrobots that are capable of sensing, responding to the local pathological information, and performing specific therapeutic and diagnostic tasks as orderly executed operations using their smart composite material architectures.

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DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Innate turning preference of leaf-cutting ants in the absence of external orientation cues

Endlein, T., Sitti, M.

Journal of Experimental Biology, The Company of Biologists Ltd, June 2018 (article)

Abstract
Many ants use a combination of cues for orientation but how do ants find their way when all external cues are suppressed? Do they walk in a random way or are their movements spatially oriented? Here we show for the first time that leaf-cutting ants (Acromyrmex lundii) have an innate preference of turning counter-clockwise (left) when external cues are precluded. We demonstrated this by allowing individual ants to run freely on the water surface of a newly-developed treadmill. The surface tension supported medium-sized workers but effectively prevented ants from reaching the wall of the vessel, important to avoid wall-following behaviour (thigmotaxis). Most ants ran for minutes on the spot but also slowly turned counter-clockwise in the absence of visual cues. Reconstructing the effectively walked path revealed a looping pattern which could be interpreted as a search strategy. A similar turning bias was shown for groups of ants in a symmetrical Y-maze where twice as many ants chose the left branch in the absence of optical cues. Wall-following behaviour was tested by inserting a coiled tube before the Y-fork. When ants traversed a left-coiled tube, more ants chose the left box and vice versa. Adding visual cues in form of vertical black strips either outside the treadmill or on one branch of the Y-maze led to oriented walks towards the strips. It is suggested that both, the turning bias and the wall-following are employed as search strategies for an unknown environment which can be overridden by visual cues.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Motility and chemotaxis of bacteria-driven microswimmers fabricated using antigen 43-mediated biotin display

Schauer, O., Mostaghaci, B., Colin, R., Hürtgen, D., Kraus, D., Sitti, M., Sourjik, V.

Scientific Reports, 8(1):9801, Nature Publishing Group, June 2018 (article)

Abstract
Bacteria-driven biohybrid microswimmers (bacteriabots) combine synthetic cargo with motile living bacteria that enable propulsion and steering. Although fabrication and potential use of such bacteriabots have attracted much attention, existing methods of fabrication require an extensive sample preparation that can drastically decrease the viability and motility of bacteria. Moreover, chemotactic behavior of bacteriabots in a liquid medium with chemical gradients has remained largely unclear. To overcome these shortcomings, we designed Escherichia coli to autonomously display biotin on its cell surface via the engineered autotransporter antigen 43 and thus to bind streptavidin-coated cargo. We show that the cargo attachment to these bacteria is greatly enhanced by motility and occurs predominantly at the cell poles, which is greatly beneficial for the fabrication of motile bacteriabots. We further performed a systemic study to understand and optimize the ability of these bacteriabots to follow chemical gradients. We demonstrate that the chemotaxis of bacteriabots is primarily limited by the cargo-dependent reduction of swimming speed and show that the fabrication of bacteriabots using elongated E. coli cells can be used to overcome this limitation.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]