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2018


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Discovering and Teaching Optimal Planning Strategies

Lieder, F., Callaway, F., Krueger, P. M., Das, P., Griffiths, T. L., Gul, S.

In The 14th biannual conference of the German Society for Cognitive Science, GK, September 2018, Falk Lieder and Frederick Callaway contributed equally to this publication. (inproceedings)

Abstract
How should we think and decide, and how can we learn to make better decisions? To address these questions we formalize the discovery of cognitive strategies as a metacognitive reinforcement learning problem. This formulation leads to a computational method for deriving optimal cognitive strategies and a feedback mechanism for accelerating the process by which people learn how to make better decisions. As a proof of concept, we apply our approach to develop an intelligent system that teaches people optimal planning stratgies. Our training program combines a novel process-tracing paradigm that makes peoples latent planning strategies observable with an intelligent system that gives people feedback on how their planning strategy could be improved. The pedagogy of our intelligent tutor is based on the theory that people discover their cognitive strategies through metacognitive reinforcement learning. Concretely, the tutor’s feedback is designed to maximally accelerate people’s metacognitive reinforcement learning towards the optimal cognitive strategy. A series of four experiments confirmed that training with the cognitive tutor significantly improved people’s decision-making competency: Experiment 1 demonstrated that the cognitive tutor’s feedback accelerates participants’ metacognitive learning. Experiment 2 found that this training effect transfers to more difficult planning problems in more complex environments. Experiment 3 found that these transfer effects are retained for at least 24 hours after the training. Finally, Experiment 4 found that practicing with the cognitive tutor conveys additional benefits above and beyond verbal description of the optimal planning strategy. The results suggest that promoting metacognitive reinforcement learning with optimal feedback is a promising approach to improving the human mind.

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link (url) Project Page [BibTex]

2018


link (url) Project Page [BibTex]


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Discovering Rational Heuristics for Risky Choice

Gul, S., Krueger, P. M., Callaway, F., Griffiths, T. L., Lieder, F.

The 14th biannual conference of the German Society for Cognitive Science, GK, The 14th biannual conference of the German Society for Cognitive Science, GK, September 2018 (conference)

Abstract
How should we think and decide to make the best possible use of our precious time and limited cognitive resources? And how do people’s cognitive strategies compare to this ideal? We study these questions in the domain of multi-alternative risky choice using the methodology of resource-rational analysis. To answer the first question, we leverage a new meta-level reinforcement learning algorithm to derive optimal heuristics for four different risky choice environments. We find that our method rediscovers two fast-and-frugal heuristics that people are known to use, namely Take-The-Best and choosing randomly, as resource-rational strategies for specific environments. Our method also discovered a novel heuristic that combines elements of Take-The-Best and Satisficing. To answer the second question, we use the Mouselab paradigm to measure how people’s decision strategies compare to the predictions of our resource-rational analysis. We found that our resource-rational analysis correctly predicted which strategies people use and under which conditions they use them. While people generally tend to make rational use of their limited resources overall, their strategy choices do not always fully exploit the structure of each decision problem. Overall, people’s decision operations were about 88% as resource-rational as they could possibly be. A formal model comparison confirmed that our resource-rational model explained people’s decision strategies significantly better than the Directed Cognition model of Gabaix et al. (2006). Our study is a proof-of-concept that optimal cognitive strategies can be automatically derived from the principle of resource-rationality. Our results suggest that resource-rational analysis is a promising approach for uncovering people’s cognitive strategies and revisiting the debate about human rationality with a more realistic normative standard.

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link (url) Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]


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Learning to Select Computations

Callaway, F., Gul, S., Krueger, P. M., Griffiths, T. L., Lieder, F.

In Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence: Proceedings of the Thirty-Fourth Conference, August 2018, Frederick Callaway and Sayan Gul and Falk Lieder contributed equally to this publication. (inproceedings)

Abstract
The efficient use of limited computational resources is an essential ingredient of intelligence. Selecting computations optimally according to rational metareasoning would achieve this, but this is computationally intractable. Inspired by psychology and neuroscience, we propose the first concrete and domain-general learning algorithm for approximating the optimal selection of computations: Bayesian metalevel policy search (BMPS). We derive this general, sample-efficient search algorithm for a computation-selecting metalevel policy based on the insight that the value of information lies between the myopic value of information and the value of perfect information. We evaluate BMPS on three increasingly difficult metareasoning problems: when to terminate computation, how to allocate computation between competing options, and planning. Across all three domains, BMPS achieved near-optimal performance and compared favorably to previously proposed metareasoning heuristics. Finally, we demonstrate the practical utility of BMPS in an emergency management scenario, even accounting for the overhead of metareasoning.

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link (url) Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) Project Page [BibTex]


Learning from Outside the Viability Kernel: Why we Should Build Robots that can Fail with Grace
Learning from Outside the Viability Kernel: Why we Should Build Robots that can Fail with Grace

Heim, S., Sproewitz, A.

Proceedings of SIMPAR 2018, pages: 55-61, IEEE, 2018 IEEE International Conference on Simulation, Modeling, and Programming for Autonomous Robots (SIMPAR), May 2018 (conference)

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link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) DOI Project Page [BibTex]


Shaping in Practice: Training Wheels to Learn Fast Hopping Directly in Hardware
Shaping in Practice: Training Wheels to Learn Fast Hopping Directly in Hardware

Heim, S., Ruppert, F., Sarvestani, A., Sproewitz, A.

In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) 2018, pages: 5076-5081, IEEE, International Conference on Robotics and Automation, May 2018 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Learning instead of designing robot controllers can greatly reduce engineering effort required, while also emphasizing robustness. Despite considerable progress in simulation, applying learning directly in hardware is still challenging, in part due to the necessity to explore potentially unstable parameters. We explore the of concept shaping the reward landscape with training wheels; temporary modifications of the physical hardware that facilitate learning. We demonstrate the concept with a robot leg mounted on a boom learning to hop fast. This proof of concept embodies typical challenges such as instability and contact, while being simple enough to empirically map out and visualize the reward landscape. Based on our results we propose three criteria for designing effective training wheels for learning in robotics.

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Video Youtube link (url) Project Page [BibTex]

Video Youtube link (url) Project Page [BibTex]


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On Time Optimization of Centroidal Momentum Dynamics

Ponton, B., Herzog, A., Del Prete, A., Schaal, S., Righetti, L.

In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pages: 5776-5782, IEEE, Brisbane, Australia, 2018 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Recently, the centroidal momentum dynamics has received substantial attention to plan dynamically consistent motions for robots with arms and legs in multi-contact scenarios. However, it is also non convex which renders any optimization approach difficult and timing is usually kept fixed in most trajectory optimization techniques to not introduce additional non convexities to the problem. But this can limit the versatility of the algorithms. In our previous work, we proposed a convex relaxation of the problem that allowed to efficiently compute momentum trajectories and contact forces. However, our approach could not minimize a desired angular momentum objective which seriously limited its applicability. Noticing that the non-convexity introduced by the time variables is of similar nature as the centroidal dynamics one, we propose two convex relaxations to the problem based on trust regions and soft constraints. The resulting approaches can compute time-optimized dynamically consistent trajectories sufficiently fast to make the approach realtime capable. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated in several multi-contact scenarios for a humanoid robot. In particular, we show that the proposed convex relaxation of the original problem finds solutions that are consistent with the original non-convex problem and illustrate how timing optimization allows to find motion plans that would be difficult to plan with fixed timing † †Implementation details and demos can be found in the source code available at https://git-amd.tuebingen.mpg.de/bponton/timeoptimization.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Enhanced Non-Steady Gliding Performance of the MultiMo-Bat through Optimal Airfoil Configuration and Control Strategy

Kim, H., Woodward, M. A., Sitti, M.

In 2018 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), pages: 1382-1388, 2018 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Collectives of Spinning Mobile Microrobots for Navigation and Object Manipulation at the Air-Water Interface

Wang, W., Kishore, V., Koens, L., Lauga, E., Sitti, M.

In 2018 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), pages: 1-9, 2018 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Endo-VMFuseNet: A Deep Visual-Magnetic Sensor Fusion Approach for Endoscopic Capsule Robots

Turan, M., Almalioglu, Y., Gilbert, H. B., Sari, A. E., Soylu, U., Sitti, M.

In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pages: 1-7, 2018 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Endosensorfusion: Particle filtering-based multi-sensory data fusion with switching state-space model for endoscopic capsule robots

Turan, M., Almalioglu, Y., Gilbert, H., Araujo, H., Cemgil, T., Sitti, M.

In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pages: 1-8, 2018 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Unsupervised Contact Learning for Humanoid Estimation and Control

Rotella, N., Schaal, S., Righetti, L.

In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pages: 411-417, IEEE, Brisbane, Australia, 2018 (inproceedings)

Abstract
This work presents a method for contact state estimation using fuzzy clustering to learn contact probability for full, six-dimensional humanoid contacts. The data required for training is solely from proprioceptive sensors - endeffector contact wrench sensors and inertial measurement units (IMUs) - and the method is completely unsupervised. The resulting cluster means are used to efficiently compute the probability of contact in each of the six endeffector degrees of freedom (DoFs) independently. This clustering-based contact probability estimator is validated in a kinematics-based base state estimator in a simulation environment with realistic added sensor noise for locomotion over rough, low-friction terrain on which the robot is subject to foot slip and rotation. The proposed base state estimator which utilizes these six DoF contact probability estimates is shown to perform considerably better than that which determines kinematic contact constraints purely based on measured normal force.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Learning Task-Specific Dynamics to Improve Whole-Body Control

Gams, A., Mason, S., Ude, A., Schaal, S., Righetti, L.

In Hua, IEEE, Beijing, China, November 2018 (inproceedings)

Abstract
In task-based inverse dynamics control, reference accelerations used to follow a desired plan can be broken down into feedforward and feedback trajectories. The feedback term accounts for tracking errors that are caused from inaccurate dynamic models or external disturbances. On underactuated, free-floating robots, such as humanoids, high feedback terms can be used to improve tracking accuracy; however, this can lead to very stiff behavior or poor tracking accuracy due to limited control bandwidth. In this paper, we show how to reduce the required contribution of the feedback controller by incorporating learned task-space reference accelerations. Thus, we i) improve the execution of the given specific task, and ii) offer the means to reduce feedback gains, providing for greater compliance of the system. With a systematic approach we also reduce heuristic tuning of the model parameters and feedback gains, often present in real-world experiments. In contrast to learning task-specific joint-torques, which might produce a similar effect but can lead to poor generalization, our approach directly learns the task-space dynamics of the center of mass of a humanoid robot. Simulated and real-world results on the lower part of the Sarcos Hermes humanoid robot demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

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link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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An MPC Walking Framework With External Contact Forces

Mason, S., Rotella, N., Schaal, S., Righetti, L.

In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pages: 1785-1790, IEEE, Brisbane, Australia, May 2018 (inproceedings)

Abstract
In this work, we present an extension to a linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme that plans external contact forces for the robot when given multiple contact locations and their corresponding friction cone. To this end, we set up a two-step optimization problem. In the first optimization, we compute the Center of Mass (CoM) trajectory, foot step locations, and introduce slack variables to account for violating the imposed constraints on the Zero Moment Point (ZMP). We then use the slack variables to trigger the second optimization, in which we calculate the optimal external force that compensates for the ZMP tracking error. This optimization considers multiple contacts positions within the environment by formulating the problem as a Mixed Integer Quadratic Program (MIQP) that can be solved at a speed between 100-300 Hz. Once contact is created, the MIQP reduces to a single Quadratic Program (QP) that can be solved in real-time ({\textless}; 1kHz). Simulations show that the presented walking control scheme can withstand disturbances 2-3× larger with the additional force provided by a hand contact.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]

2010


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Adhesion recovery and passive peeling in a wall climbing robot using adhesives

Kute, C., Murphy, M. P., Mengüç, Y., Sitti, M.

In Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2010 IEEE International Conference on, pages: 2797-2802, 2010 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

2010


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Comparison of linear and nonlinear buck converter models with varying compensator gain values for design optimization

Sattler, Michael, Lui, Yusi, Edrington, Chris S

In North American Power Symposium (NAPS), 2010, pages: 1-7, 2010 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Enhancing the performance of Bio-inspired adhesives

Chung, H., Glass, P., Sitti, M., Washburn, N. R.

In ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 240, 2010 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Control performance simulation in the design of a flapping wing micro-aerial vehicle

Hines, L. L., Arabagi, V., Sitti, M.

In Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, pages: 1090-1095, 2010 (inproceedings)

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]


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Constrained Accelerations for Controlled Geometric Reduction: Sagittal-Plane Decoupling for Bipedal Locomotion

Gregg, R., Righetti, L., Buchli, J., Schaal, S.

In 2010 10th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, pages: 1-7, IEEE, Nashville, USA, 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Energy-shaping control methods have produced strong theoretical results for asymptotically stable 3D bipedal dynamic walking in the literature. In particular, geometric controlled reduction exploits robot symmetries to control momentum conservation laws that decouple the sagittal-plane dynamics, which are easier to stabilize. However, the associated control laws require high-dimensional matrix inverses multiplied with complicated energy-shaping terms, often making these control theories difficult to apply to highly-redundant humanoid robots. This paper presents a first step towards the application of energy-shaping methods on real robots by casting controlled reduction into a framework of constrained accelerations for inverse dynamics control. By representing momentum conservation laws as constraints in acceleration space, we construct a general expression for desired joint accelerations that render the constraint surface invariant. By appropriately choosing an orthogonal projection, we show that the unconstrained (reduced) dynamics are decoupled from the constrained dynamics. Any acceleration-based controller can then be used to stabilize this planar subsystem, including passivity-based methods. The resulting control law is surprisingly simple and represents a practical way to employ control theoretic stability results in robotic platforms. Simulated walking of a 3D compass-gait biped show correspondence between the new and original controllers, and simulated motions of a 16-DOF humanoid demonstrate the applicability of this method.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Surface tension driven water strider robot using circular footpads

Ozcan, O., Wang, H., Taylor, J. D., Sitti, M.

In Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2010 IEEE International Conference on, pages: 3799-3804, 2010 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Inverse dynamics with optimal distribution of ground reaction forces for legged robot

Righetti, L., Buchli, J., Mistry, M., Schaal, S.

In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR), pages: 580-587, Nagoya, Japan, sep 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Contact interaction with the environment is crucial in the design of locomotion controllers for legged robots, to prevent slipping for example. Therefore, it is of great importance to be able to control the effects of the robots movements on the contact reaction forces. In this contribution, we extend a recent inverse dynamics algorithm for floating base robots to optimize the distribution of contact forces while achieving precise trajectory tracking. The resulting controller is algorithmically simple as compared to other approaches. Numerical simulations show that this result significantly increases the range of possible movements of a humanoid robot as compared to the previous inverse dynamics algorithm. We also present a simplification of the result where no inversion of the inertia matrix is needed which is particularly relevant for practical use on a real robot. Such an algorithm becomes interesting for agile locomotion of robots on difficult terrains where the contacts with the environment are critical, such as walking over rough or slippery terrain.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]

2006


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Miniature endoscopic capsule robot using biomimetic micro-patterned adhesives

Karagozler, M. E., Cheung, E., Kwon, J., Sitti, M.

In Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics, 2006. BioRob 2006. The First IEEE/RAS-EMBS International Conference on, pages: 105-111, 2006 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

2006


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Toward micro wall-climbing robots using biomimetic fibrillar adhesives

Greuter, M., Shah, G., Caprari, G., Tâche, F., Siegwart, R., Sitti, M.

In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Autonomous Minirobots for Research and Edutainment (AMiRE 2005), pages: 39-46, 2006 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Geckobot: A gecko inspired climbing robot using elastomer adhesives

Unver, O., Uneri, A., Aydemir, A., Sitti, M.

In Robotics and Automation, 2006. ICRA 2006. Proceedings 2006 IEEE International Conference on, pages: 2329-2335, 2006 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Towards hybrid swimming microrobots: bacteria assisted propulsion of polystyrene beads

Behkam, B., Sitti, M.

In Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2006. EMBS’06. 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, pages: 2421-2424, 2006 (inproceedings)

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]


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Movement generation using dynamical systems : a humanoid robot performing a drumming task

Degallier, S., Santos, C. P., Righetti, L., Ijspeert, A.

In 2006 6th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, pages: 512-517, IEEE, Genova, Italy, 2006 (inproceedings)

Abstract
The online generation of trajectories in humanoid robots remains a difficult problem. In this contribution, we present a system that allows the superposition, and the switch between, discrete and rhythmic movements. Our approach uses nonlinear dynamical systems for generating trajectories online and in real time. Our goal is to make use of attractor properties of dynamical systems in order to provide robustness against small perturbations and to enable online modulation of the trajectories. The system is demonstrated on a humanoid robot performing a drumming task.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Soft microcontact printing with force control using microrobotic assembly based templates

Tafazzoli, A., Sitti, M.

In Advanced Motion Control, 2006. 9th IEEE International Workshop on, pages: 500-505, 2006 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Modeling of the supporting legs for designing biomimetic water strider robots

Song, Y. S., Suhr, S. H., Sitti, M.

In Robotics and Automation, 2006. ICRA 2006. Proceedings 2006 IEEE International Conference on, pages: 2303-2310, 2006 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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A novel water running robot inspired by basilisk lizards

Floyd, S., Keegan, T., Palmisano, J., Sitti, M.

In Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, pages: 5430-5436, 2006 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Design methodologies for central pattern generators: an application to crawling humanoids

Righetti, L., Ijspeert, A.

In Proceedings of Robotics: Science and Systems, Philadelphia, USA, August 2006 (inproceedings)

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Force-controlled microcontact printing using microassembled particle templates

Tafazzoli, A., Pawashe, C., Sitti, M.

In Robotics and Automation, 2006. ICRA 2006. Proceedings 2006 IEEE International Conference on, pages: 263-268, 2006 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Waalbot: An agile small-scale wall climbing robot utilizing pressure sensitive adhesives

Murphy, M. P., Tso, W., Tanzini, M., Sitti, M.

In Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, pages: 3411-3416, 2006 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Programmable central pattern generators: an application to biped locomotion control

Righetti, L., Ijspeert, A.

In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2006. ICRA 2006., pages: 1585-1590, IEEE, 2006 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]

2003


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High aspect ratio polymer micro/nano-structure manufacturing using nanoembossing, nanomolding and directed self-assembly

Sitti, M.

In ASME 2003 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, pages: 293-297, 2003 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

2003


[BibTex]


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Nsf workshop on future directions in nano-scale systems, dynamics and control

Sitti, M.

In Automatic Control Conference (ACC), 2003 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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3-D nano-fiber manufacturing by controlled pulling of liquid polymers using nano-probes

Nain, A. S., Sitti, M.

In Nanotechnology, 2003. IEEE-NANO 2003. 2003 Third IEEE Conference on, 1, pages: 60-63, 2003 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Manufacturing of two and three-dimensional micro/nanostructures by integrating optical tweezers with chemical assembly

Castelino, K., Satyanarayana, S., Sitti, M.

In Nanotechnology, 2003. IEEE-NANO 2003. 2003 Third IEEE Conference on, 1, pages: 56-59, 2003 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Evolution of Fault-tolerant Self-replicating Structures

Righetti, L., Shokur, S., Capcarre, M.

In Advances in Artificial Life, pages: 278-288, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2003 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Designed and evolved self-replicating structures in cellular automata have been extensively studied in the past as models of Artificial Life. However, CAs, unlike their biological counterpart, are very brittle: any faulty cell usually leads to the complete destruction of any emerging structures, let alone self-replicating structures. A way to design fault-tolerant structures based on error-correcting-code has been presented recently [1], but it required a cumbersome work to be put into practice. In this paper, we get back to the original inspiration for these works, nature, and propose a way to evolve self-replicating structures, faults here being only an idiosyncracy of the environment.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Synthetic gecko foot-hair micro/nano-structures for future wall-climbing robots

Sitti, M., Fearing, R. S.

In Robotics and Automation, 2003. Proceedings. ICRA’03. IEEE International Conference on, 1, pages: 1164-1170, 2003 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Biomimetic propulsion for a swimming surgical micro-robot

Edd, J., Payen, S., Rubinsky, B., Stoller, M. L., Sitti, M.

In Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2003.(IROS 2003). Proceedings. 2003 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, 3, pages: 2583-2588, 2003 (inproceedings)

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]

2001


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Survey of nanomanipulation systems

Sitti, M.

In Nanotechnology, 2001. IEEE-NANO 2001. Proceedings of the 2001 1st IEEE Conference on, pages: 75-80, 2001 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

2001


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Nanotribological characterization system by AFM based controlled pushing

Sitti, M.

In Nanotechnology, 2001. IEEE-NANO 2001. Proceedings of the 2001 1st IEEE Conference on, pages: 99-104, 2001 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Towards flapping wing control for a micromechanical flying insect

Yan, J., Wood, R. J., Avadhanula, S., Sitti, M., Fearing, R. S.

In Robotics and Automation, 2001. Proceedings 2001 ICRA. IEEE International Conference on, 4, pages: 3901-3908, 2001 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Man-machine interface for micro/nano manipulation with an afm probe

Aruk, B., Hashimoto, H., Sitti, M.

In Nanotechnology, 2001. IEEE-NANO 2001. Proceedings of the 2001 1st IEEE Conference on, pages: 151-156, 2001 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Development of PZT and PZN-PT based unimorph actuators for micromechanical flapping mechanisms

Sitti, M., Campolo, D., Yan, J., Fearing, R. S.

In Robotics and Automation, 2001. Proceedings 2001 ICRA. IEEE International Conference on, 4, pages: 3839-3846, 2001 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Thorax Design and Wing Control for a Micromechanical Flying Insect

Yan, J, Ayadhanula, S, Sitti, M, Wood, RJ, Fearing, RS

In PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL ALLERTON CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATION CONTROL AND COMPUTING, 39(2):952-961, 2001 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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PZT actuated four-bar mechanism with two flexible links for micromechanical flying insect thorax

Sitti, M.

In Robotics and Automation, 2001. Proceedings 2001 ICRA. IEEE International Conference on, 4, pages: 3893-3900, 2001 (inproceedings)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Development of a scaled teleoperation system for nano scale interaction and manipulation

Sitti, M., Aruk, B., Shintani, H., Hashimoto, H.

In Robotics and Automation, 2001. Proceedings 2001 ICRA. IEEE International Conference on, 1, pages: 860-867, 2001 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]